On un/employment

Export-led growth undoubtedly generates employment but apart from being unsteady due to ups and downs in the world market and/or the market penetration of the particular NIC (Newly Industrializing Countries) industry, this employment itself generates unemployment as it interferes with domestically oriented industry and agriculture and draws more labor into the cities than the jobs that it creates. In Hong Kong and Singapore this process is invisible within the “country” but in Mexico and Brazil, as well as Malaysia, the Philippines and elsewhere, and now in China itself, this structurally generated unemployment is increasingly evident.

– A.G.Frank, Global Crisis and Transformation in International Capitalism and Industrial Restructuring. 1987

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